Barley is a major cereal grain, have rapidly been gaining popularity over the past few years due to its health benefits.

The world barley production from 2008/2009 expected to be around 140.6 million metric tons. European Union is the biggest barley producer in the world and they produce about 56.34 million metric tons in 2018/2019. Russia was the second leading barley producer in the world, with the production amounting to 16.6 million metric tons in 2018/2019.

Other major barley producing countries include Ukraine, Canada, Turkey, Australia and Ethiopia. China, Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Spain and Japan are the major importers of barley.

There are many types of barley in the world; there are two, four or six rows of grains on the head (10, 12, 13). Six row barley can produce 25-60 grains, while two-row barley produces 25-30 grains (4). Four-row barley is actually loose six-row barley (4), so many sources only differentiate between two- and six-row varieties. Wild barley is two-row (12), and most cultivated barley is the six-row type in the world. The Pearl barley is easily available in the local market and the hulled barley is to be more nutritious type of barley in the world.

Barley is believed to have originated from Egypt, Ethiopia and Tibet.